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In The News / EBR of Juiced "Cross Current"
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 04:40:20 pm »
Laws About Ebikes / Washington
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 01:01:09 pm »
Washington wiki link

The State Patrol in Washington just makes it so simple with a pdf chart.
Laws About Ebikes / Virginia
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 12:54:52 pm »
Virginia wiki link

Virginia's DOT has their act together!  Information is easy to find.  It is a bicycle if it meets the definition and requires no license or registration.

"Electric power-assisted bicycle" means a vehicle that travels on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and is equipped with (i) pedals that allow propulsion by human power and (ii) an electric motor with an input of no more than 1,000 watts that reduces the pedal effort required of the rider. Operators must be at least 14 years old or be under the supervision of someone at least 18 years old. An electric power-assisted bicycle shall be considered a vehicle when operated on a highway.

A little more definition and some requirements
All electric personal assistive mobility devices, electrically powered toy vehicles, and electric power-assisted bicycles shall be equipped with spill-proof, sealed, or gelled electrolyte batteries. No person shall at any time or at any location drive an electric personal assistive mobility device, or an electric power-assisted bicycle faster than twenty-five miles per hour. No person less than fourteen years old shall drive any electric personal assistive mobility device, motorized skateboard or foot-scooter, or electric power-assisted bicycle unless under the immediate supervision of a person who is at least eighteen years old.

An electric personal assistive mobility device or motorized skateboard or foot-scooter may be operated on any highway with a maximum speed limit of twenty-five miles per hour or less. An electric personal assistive mobility device shall only operate on any highway authorized by this section if a sidewalk is not provided along such highway or if operation of the electric personal assistive mobility device on such sidewalk is prohibited pursuant to § 46.2-904. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the operation of an electric personal assistive mobility device or motorized skateboard or foot-scooter in the crosswalk of any highway where the use of such crosswalk is authorized for pedestrians, bicycles, or electric power-assisted bicycles.

Operation of electric personal assistive mobility devices, electrically powered toy vehicles, bicycles and electric power-assisted bicycles is prohibited on any Interstate Highway System component except as provided by the section.

VA DOT's site covering operation of bicycles.
Laws About Ebikes / Interactive map and pdf chart of bike laws in the US and Canada
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 12:27:27 pm »
An ebike research group at Portland State University has developed an interactive map as well as a PDF chart to help you know the laws where you ride.

I found this when doing research for my listings.

Laws About Ebikes / New Jersey
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 12:12:43 pm »
New Jersey wiki link

New Jersey Title 39:1-1
"Motorized bicycle" means a pedal bicycle having a helper motor characterized in that either the maximum piston displacement is less than 50 cc. or said motor is rated at no more than 1.5 brake horsepower or is powered by an electric drive motor and said bicycle is capable of a maximum speed of no more than 25 miles per hour on a flat surface.

You have to be 18 and you must have either a basic driver's license or a motorcycle license
New Jersey Title 39:3-10 The holder of a basic driver's license or a separately issued motorcycle license shall be authorized to operate a motorcycle having a motor with a maximum piston displacement that is less than 50 cubic centimeters or a motor that is rated at no more than 1.5 brake horsepower with a maximum speed no more than 35 miles per hour on a flat surface.

TREC says you only have to be 15 years old, but I cannot find it in the statues.
I am unable to find anything on registration requirements specific to "motorized bicycle."  It is a safe bet that they will be treated like a moped.
Laws About Ebikes / Michigan
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 09:11:01 am »
Michigan wiki listing

It is considered a moped.

Definition (see page 21):
Electric Bicycles and Other Non-Traditional Mopeds
Mopeds are defined by MCL 257.32b as two- or three-wheeled vehicles with a motor (gasoline or electric) that does
not exceed 50 cc (not applicable to electric motors), produces 2.0 brake horsepower (1500 watts) or less, is not
capable of traveling faster than 30 mph on a level surface, and does not require the operator to shift gears. The law
does not prohibit gear shifting mechanisms. Any vehicle with two or three wheels that exceeds these criteria
becomes a motorcycle if equipped with a saddle or seat, or an off-road vehicle if not so equipped. Any vehicle that
meets the definition can be registered with the Secretary of State (SOS) and legally operated on a street if it
possesses all of the required equipment and if a TR-54 form is completed by a police officer.
The form TR-54 appears to be superseded by form SOS-430 (linked below) since TR-54 doesn't specifically identify a moped.

...And further on page 27
Electric Bicycles
A bicycle equipped with either an electric or gasoline motor meets both the definition of Motor Vehicle, MCL 257.33,
and Moped, MCL 257.32b, and is subject to state laws and local ordinances applicable to motor vehicles rather than
those governing the use of bicycles. Some retailers and operators of electric bicycles are under the misconception
that a federal law exempts these vehicles from applicable motor vehicle laws. They will cite Public Law 107-319,
which makes low speed electric bicycles consumer products rather than motor vehicles solely for the purpose of
manufacturing requirements and safety standards.
Contrary to the misconception of these retailers and operators, Public Law 107-319 has no effect on state laws or
local ordinances governing the use of vehicles on public streets and highways. The federal law is very clear on
this distinction. At least one manufacturer of these vehicles provides the correct information to the public. As
always, common sense and good judgement should be used when taking enforcement action.

Here is form SOS-430 from the Michigan Secretary of State that is required for registration.

Riding a Moped Safely
(Updated May 29, 2015)

If you are a moped operator, you must follow the same traffic rules as other motor vehicle operators.  A moped is defined by law as a motor vehicle with two or three wheels that:

Has an engine that does not exceed 100 cc piston displacement
Does not have a gearshift
Has a top speed of 30 mph or less on a level surface
Vehicles exceeding any of the criteria above must be registered and titled as a motorcycle. Other types of vehicles, such as electric scooters, “pocket rockets” and mini-choppers, may fit the definition of a moped or a motorcycle, but cannot be registered by the Department of State if they lack the equipment required by law to legally drive on public roads.

Registration Requirements

Mopeds must be registered at a Secretary of State office unless operated solely on private property. A three-year registration decal costs $15 and is displayed on the back of your moped so it is visible to law enforcement officers. It expires April 30 in the year on the decal.

License Requirements

If you do not have a valid operator or chauffeur license and are at least age 15, you may apply for a moped license. You are not eligible for a moped license if your operator or chauffeur license is suspended, revoked or denied.
You must present proof of your Social Security number, legal presence, identity and two proofs of Michigan residency. For more information, visit
You must pass vision, knowledge and traffic sign tests to obtain a moped license. You do not have to pass a driver education course or a driving skills test.
If you are under age 18, a parent or legal guardian must sign your license application.
You must give up your moped license if you obtain a regular operator or chauffeur license.
Thee original moped license fee is $7.50.  Applicants under age 20 years, 6 months receive a moped license valid until their 21st birthday. Any other moped license expires four years from the applicant’s last birthday. The four-year renewal fee is $6.
Rules of the Road

Operators under age 19 must wear an approved and properly fastened safety helmet when riding a moped on a public road. The helmet must meet U.S. Department of Transportation safety standards.
Sit on a regular, permanently attached seat.
Keep both hands on the handle grips. Never hang on to another vehicle for a “tow.”
Ride on the right edge of the road, out of the flow of traffic, when possible.
Make sure all moped equipment is in good working order.
Never operate a moped on freeways, more than two side-by-side, between lanes of traffic, or on sidewalks and bicycle paths.
Never allow an unlicensed operator to use your moped.
Only carry up to one passenger - it is illegal to carry more than one passenger.
Perform Safety Check, Before Riding

 Keep tires properly inflated.
Check the front and rear brakes, the throttle and cables for kinks and broken strands.
Test the horn and all lights including the brake light and turn signals.
Make sure the chain is properly adjusted.
Adjust and clean mirrors.
Riding Techniques

Body Position

Sit straight and close enough to the handlebars to reach them with your arms slightly bent. Hold the handle grips firmly.


Approach turns carefully and limit your speed until you learn to judge the safest speed.
Lean with your moped. the sharper the turn, the more you must lean.
Use turn signals whenever you plan to enter traffic, turn or change lanes, even if you do not see another vehicle or pedestrian.
Remember to turn on your signals after turning! They could confuse other drivers.
Use your left arm to signal turns if your moped does not have electric turn signals.
Be Visible

Keep your headlight on at all times.
Wear brightly colored protective clothing that covers your arms and legs completely. Use reflective tape on your clothing, helmet and vehicle.
Wear protective boots and gloves.
Do not ride in another driver’s blind spot. Stay behind and to the right of the vehicle in front of you, so you can see the vehicle’s turn signals.

Flash your brake light to warn others, by squeezing the brake lever before slowing down.
If you squeeze the brake lever too hard, you may lock the front wheel and tip your moped over, particularly on wet or loose surfaces.
Apply both brakes at the same time.
Brake before entering a curve or turn.
If you must stop quickly, keep the front wheel straight (do not slide). Apply the rear brake firmly and the front brake gently. Then, quickly increase the pressure on the front brake.
Ride Defensively

Defensive driving is the key to safety. Expect the unexpected. Be aware of other vehicles and pedestrians. Be prepared for their mistakes. Watch for bicyclists, joggers, blind pedestrians, animals crossing the road, flying objects, gravel, icy or slippery roads.

The Road Ahead

Keep checking the road surface ahead. Slow down and test your brakes if you see slippery spots, oil, water, painted lane markings, manhole covers, bad bumps, loose gravel, grooves and gratings, broken or jutting pavement, railroad tracks or leaves.
Watch for vehicles leaving the curb or entering the road from side streets and driveways.
Look for places where you could leave the road safely in case of an emergency.
Using Your Mirrors

Check your mirrors every few seconds when you slow down, stop, change lanes or approach intersections. Also, check mirrors periodically to be aware of vehicles approaching or passing from behind.

Checking Around You

Mopeds have “blind spots” that you need to check by turning your head. When changing lanes, always look over your shoulder at the traffic behind you.

Position for Visibility

At intersections, check around buildings, parked vehicles and bushes to see if other vehicles are coming.
When parked, pull back onto the road from an angled position for a better view of traffic coming from both directions.
Night Riding

Reduce your speed. Use your headlight if you must ride a moped at night. Leave more room between you and others to allow more time to react in a dangerous situation. Check for rough spots in the road by watching the tail lights of vehicles in front of you.
Limit night riding. If you must ride at night, wear reflective clothing. It is difficult to see you and your moped in the dark.
Keeping Your Distance

Distance in Front

Remain a safe distance behind the vehicle in front of you when coming to a stop.
Keep at least a three- to four- second traveling distance between you and the vehicle in front of you to allow time to react if the driver ahead suddenly stops. It gives you time to see potholes, slippery spots and debris.
Distance to the Side

Be careful when a vehicle passes. Trucks can create gusts of wind that affect your steering. When you pass parked cars, allow for people opening doors and getting out of vehicles by moving to the left side of your lane. Move further over to the right when traffic passes you from behind.

Distance Behind

Monitor traffic behind you. If another vehicle follows you too closely, allow the vehicle to pass. Brake or signal early to communicate that you are turning, slowing down or stopping.


Most moped/car crashes occur at intersections, so enter them slowly and assume others do not see you. If you turn right, watch for approaching vehicles turning left in front of you. If you turn left, enter the intersection and turn when oncoming traffic has cleared.


If you have a blowout, hold the handle grips firmly, and concentrate on steering and maintaining a straight course. If the front tire blows, shift your weight as far back as you can. If the rear tire blows, do not shift your weight. Do not use either brake. Slowly close the throttle and coast. When your moped is going slowly and it is safe, edge to the side of the road and stop.
If you have a mechanical breakdown, get off the road. When walking your moped, stay on the right shoulder with your moped between you and passing traffic.

Remember ... Never drink alcohol or

use drugs before riding a moped!

For Your Protection ... Always wear an approved safety helmet!
In The News / Lunacycle Releases Their 50Amp BBSHD
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 06:49:15 am »
Lunacycle Releases Their 50Amp BBSHD That I’ve Been Testing For 6 Months (But You Gotta Buy The Whole Bike)
by Karl Gesslein

You have no idea how hard it has been to be quiet about secretly testing the 50 Amp custom controller for the BBSHD for the last 6 months. Every single person that has test driven my ebike has two questions. How much and where can I get one? Well after 6 months I finally have…

Read more of this post
Coffee Shop / Video - How do Bikes Stay Up?
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 06:42:07 am »
In The News / Seven things I learned from riding an electric bike - Cycling Weekly
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 22, 2016, 06:32:03 am »
Steve Shrubsall got to grips with an electric bike, and here are the seven things he learned from the experience


Photo: Oliver Bridgewood
Laws About Ebikes / North Carolina
« Last post by Tom Cole on September 21, 2016, 06:20:09 pm »
North Carolina does not have a wiki listing

The only specific definition I can find is going to be controversial but it clearly defines a "motor-driven bicycle" as a motorcycle.  WHAT??? Read on...


§ 20-4.01.  Definitions.

Unless the context requires otherwise, the following definitions apply throughout this Chapter to the defined words and phrases and their cognates:

(27)      Passenger Vehicles. -

d.         Motorcycles. - Vehicles having a saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, including autocycles, motor scooters, and motor-driven bicycles, but excluding tractors and utility vehicles equipped with an additional form of device designed to transport property, three-wheeled vehicles while being used by law-enforcement agencies and mopeds as defined in subdivision d1 of this subsection.
d1.       Moped. - Defined in G.S. 105-164.3.

HOWEVER! you'll notice that Mopeds are excluded and are defined as stated above in G.S. 105-164.3 which further excludes mopeds from being "motor vehicles."

§ 105-164.3. Definitions.
The following definitions apply in this Article:
(22) Moped. – A vehicle that has two or three wheels, no external shifting device,
and a motor that does not exceed 50 cubic centimeters piston displacement
and cannot propel the vehicle at a speed greater than 30 miles per hour on a
level surface.
(23) Motor vehicle. – A vehicle that is designed primarily for use upon the
highways and is either self-propelled or propelled by a self-propelled
vehicle, but does not include:
a. A moped

But, notice the "no external shifting device?"  Does that exclude any ebike that has multiple sprockets and derailleurs?  Wow, this is getting tricky!  If you think you qualify as a moped, then click here and follow applicable moped laws.

What to do?  If you decide you do not qualify as a moped and want to ride an ebike in NC, you should probably follow the federal definition on roadways and follow the laws pertaining to the operation of a bicycle.  This site has a great detail of Important NC Traffic Laws Applicable to Bicyclists.
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